With Dante, the Italian language originated in Florence and was affirmed by Petrarch and Boccaccio in their literary studies.
With Humanism, a new philosophy came to evaluate Classical culture. Modern political science began with Machiavelli and historical prose with Guicciardini, and modern science developed with Galileo and his experimental school. Since the time of Charlemagne, Florence has been a University seat which today has about ten specialized institutes and a cultural centre for foreigners.
They include Academies and schools of an, scientific institutes such as the Astrophysics Observarory of Arcetri, the Institute of Research on Electromagnetic Waves, the Nuclear Medicine Centre, the universities for foreigners, history of art and popular cultural centres as well as the many interesting scientific museums.
Article By Massimiliano Marzi